Cooperation between FORCE Technology and DHI Singapore
DHI and FORCE Technology have cooperated for decades – amongst other in the area of port engineering. The two companies are separate legal entities, but both belong to the same group of advanced technology providers approved by the Danish Minister of Science, Innovation and Higher Education. This approval basically demands a high tech (R&D/front technology) company profile, and a role as independent consultant to the Danish industry. However, most of the commercial activity of the two companies lies abroad. In the area of port engineering the two companies supplement one another ideally, since DHI has its excellence within hydraulics and particularly within the description of waves and currents in coastal areas, and FORCE Technology has since the early 1960’ies excelled in ship hydrodynamics and developed its advanced manouevring models, which in turn have become the backbone of the maritime simulation software, SimFlex4. With DHI providing waves and current as input to FORCE Technology’s SimFlex4, the full simulated 3-D ship-environment becomes indeed very realistic. The cooperation, however, is not limited to the provision of input/output to one another. A large number of port layout studies have been carried out jointly in the sense that FORCE-DHI have under one contract delivered an optimization of breakwaters, piers, access channels as well as ship’s approach, berthing, turning, risk and downtime.
DHI’s MIKE 21
MIKE 21 HD is the basic computational hydrodynamic module of the entire MIKE 21 system providing the hydrodynamic basis for other MIKE 21 modules such as advection-dispersion (AD), water quality (ECOLab), sand transport (ST) and mud transport (MT).
MIKE 21 HD simulates the water level variation and flow in response to a variety of forcing functions in lakes, estuaries, bays and coastal areas. The water levels and flows are resolved on a rectilinear grid, a curvilinear grid, a triangular element mesh or any combination hereof covering the area of interest.
MIKE 21 HD includes formulations for the effects of:
- convective and cross momentum
- bottom shear stress
- wind shear stress at the surface
- barometric pressure gradients
- Coriolis forces
- momentum dispersion (through e.g. the Smagorinsky formulation)
- wave-induced currents
- sources and sinks (mass and momentum)
- evaporation and precipitation
- flooding and drying
- hydraulic structures
Hydrographic boundary conditions can be specified as a constant or variable (in time and space) level or flux at each open model boundary, as a constant or variable source or sink anywhere within the model, and as an initial free surface level map applied over the entire model. MIKE 21 HD can be applied to a wide range of hydraulic and related phenomena. This includes modelling of tidal hydraulics, wind and wave generated currents, storm surges and flood waves. It is a general hydraulic model that easily can be set up to describe specific hydraulic phenomena.
Examples of such applications are:
- tidal exchange and currents
- storm surge
- secondary circulations, eddies and vorticies
- harbour seiching
FORCE Technology’s SimFlex4 model
The system that imports and utilizes the data of DHI for simulation of any floating vessel in any type of environment is FORCE Technology’s SimFlex4. The system is described here.